To date relations between the European Union and Russia have been based on the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) signed in 1994 and entering into force in 1997 after ratification by the Member States and European Parliament. It established a political framework similar to the association agreements with the countries of Central Europe except that it did not include the establishment of an area of free-trade. Concluded for a period of ten years and renewed automatically yearly the PCA has been suspend for the main part. Has the time not come to think of relations with Russia differently? and on which terms?