The Letter n°977

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The Letter n°977
The Letter
Tuesday 26th April 2022
issue 977
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Strategic dependencies, a question of sovereignty
Author : Eric Maurice
Eric Maurice
The war in Ukraine and the sanctions against Russia highlight the economic and financial power of the West but raise the question of external vulnerabilities. Beyond hydrocarbons, the European Union is becoming aware of the need to secure raw materials and technologies.
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Front page : When France honours Europe
The French have re-elected Emmanuel Macron as President of the Republic, who has triumphed over the populist far right by offering his compatriots a vision that goes beyond the simple national framework. Europe now has a French president who is active and clear, in command, credible, strong and committed, writes Jean-Dominique Giuliani... Read more

Elections : Slovenian general elections results
The Movement for Freedom (GS), led by Robert Golob, won the Slovenian parliamentary elections on 24 April, with 34.5% of the vote and 41 seats out of 90 in parliament. It beat the Democratic Party (SDS) of outgoing Prime Minister Janez Jansa, which secured only 26.3%... Read more
Emmanuel Macron, re-elected President of the Republic
Emmanuel Macron was re-elected President of the French Republic on 24 April, with 58.54% of the vote against Marine Le Pen (41.46%). The abstention rate was 28%. This is the first time that a French President has managed to be re-elected outside the so-called cohabitation period... Read more

Foundation : Unreservedly European
In his book, Jean-Dominique Giuliani freely addresses his fellow citizens, who must refuse to accept the lies about the European Union while at the same time contributing to its improvement. This book, published by Marie B, is available in paper format on the Foundation's website and in bookshops. You can order it here... Read more
The Permanent Atlas of the European Union is available
To better understand Europe in 2022, the Permanent Atlas of the European Union, published by Marie B Editions, is a unique work that offers a complete and easy-to-access view of the European Union, the euro zone and each of its 27 Member States, with numerous maps. It is available in English in digital format... Read more
Map of Health Measures and Travel Conditions in Europe
Most of the health measures introduced during the winter have now been lifted in the European Union. Since 16 April, masks are no longer required in shops and cultural venues in Austria, but remain mandatory in transport and hospitals. To find out what the situation is in the Member States, the Foundation offers you a complete map of the measures in place. An indispensable, regularly updated resource... Read more

Ukraine/Russia : Further European and British Sanctions
On 21 April, the European Union and the United Kingdom expanded the list of individuals subject to sanctions for their links to the Russian invasion of Ukraine or abuses committed on Ukrainian territory. A Ukrainian businessman and Russian Yevgeny Prigozhin, founder of the Wagner mercenary group, are now covered by the EU's restrictive measures, which now apply to 1,093 individuals and 80 entities. In addition, the UK has decided to impose new sanctions on key Russian military leaders and a further 19 individuals and entities in line with EU and G7 sanctions... Read more
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Delivery of arms to Ukraine
French President Emmanuel Macron announced on 22 April the supply of Milan anti-tank missiles and Caesar long-range guns to Ukraine. US President Joe Biden announced on 21 April that he was increasing his strategic assistance to Ukraine by $800 million. Other countries such as Turkey, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Slovakia, the Baltic States, Belgium, Greece, the Netherlands, Italy and Japan continue to send arms and strategic resources to Ukraine... Read more
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Modification of the Union's budget to help Ukrainians
On 22 April, the Commission suggested increasing the EU's 2022 budget to help people fleeing Ukraine and the states most affected by migratory flows. This increase will be used to fund the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund and the Border and Visa Management Instrument, which will allow better border control and care for people on arrival. Thus, €400 million will be mobilised for border and flow management... Read more
Emergency Medical Aid for Ukraine
On 21 April, the French Ministries of Europe and Foreign Affairs and of Solidarity and Health announced the delivery of emergency medical aid. More than 28 tonnes of medical equipment will be sent at the request of the Ukrainian authorities via Poland. Medicines, oxygen generators, breathing apparatus, these donations were financed with contributions from local authorities and companies. This operation follows another, already in Ukraine, to collect blood... Read more
Further speeches by Volodymyr Zelensky
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky addressed the Portuguese parliament on 21 April to call for stronger EU sanctions against Russia and additional military assistance in the form of heavy armaments. He participated in a round table organised by the World Bank on 21 April. He called for renewed financial support for Ukraine, which "needs $7 billion a month". He called for Russia to be excluded from all international financial institutions and for a tax on trade and financial exchanges with Russia, the proceeds of which would be used to rebuild the country after the war... Read more
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Visits to Kyiv by Charles Michel, Pedro Sanchez and Mette Frederiksen
The President of the European Council, Charles Michel, visited Kyiv on 20 April. He denounced Russia's "war crimes" and called for them to be brought to justice on the basis of evidence gathered. He met with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky to discuss the EU's military and humanitarian support and Ukraine's needs. On 21 April, Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez and his Danish counterpart Mette Frederiksen paid a joint visit to Kyiv and also met with Volodymyr Zelensky to underline the support of their countries and the European Union... Read more
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Meeting of a widened G7 regarding to Ukraine
On 19 April, the leaders of the G7 countries, together with the Presidents of Poland and Romania, the Secretary General of NATO and the Presidents of the European Commission and Council, exchanged views on the situation in Ukraine and discussed a tightening of sanctions against Russia... Read more
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Study regarding the impact of the war in Europe
The IMF said on 22 April that the war in Ukraine is a "severe blow" to the post-pandemic recovery in Europe. It forecasts growth in 2022 of 3% for the advanced European economies and 2.7% for the emerging economies excluding Ukraine and Russia, i.e. 1% and 1.5% lower than forecast in January. Inflation is expected to reach 5.5% in advanced countries and 9.3% in emerging economies, 2.2% and 3.5% higher than expected. The IMF advocates a monetary policy that balances the fight against inflation with the need to limit output losses. It also calls on Europeans to improve their energy security by developing renewable energy and energy efficiency... Read more
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Humanitarian assessment of the war and visits to Moscow and Kyiv
On 21 April during a visit to Lviv, Amin Awad reported on the devastation caused by the war in Ukraine. More than 12 million people have been displaced, an average of 136 health facilities and 22 schools are being damaged every day, and the destruction of water systems is depriving 6 million people of regular access. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres is travelling to Russia and then to Ukraine on 26 April to meet Vladimir Putin and Volodymyr Zelensky. He will also meet with UN staff on the ground to discuss scaling up humanitarian assistance to the Ukrainian population... Read more
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Council of Europe assistance to the Prosecutor General of Ukraine
On 21 April, the Council of Europe set up an advisory group to assist the office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine, Iryna Venediktova, in its investigations into gross human rights violations committed during the war in Ukraine... Read more

Commission : Trip by Ursula von der Leyen to India
On a visit to India on 24-25 April, Commission President Ursula von der Leyen launched an EU-India Trade and Technology Council with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi to optimise strategic cooperation between the two partners. They also agreed to resume negotiations on a free trade agreement and to start discussions on an investment protection agreement. The fight against climate change and energy supply were also discussed during the visit... Read more
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Parliament : Esgtablishment of a committee of enquiry into spyware
On 19 April, the European Parliament launched a new committee of enquiry, called PEGA, into the use of spyware such as Pegasus and possible violations of EU law and fundamental rights. The committee is chaired by Jeroen Lenaers (NL, EPP)... Read more
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USB Type-C, the new standard for all portable devices
Parliament's Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee adopted its position on the creation of a universal charger on 20 April. The proposal aims to reduce e-waste and allow the use of the same charger on all small and medium-sized electronic devices. All such devices will have to be equipped with a USB-C port to facilitate the reuse of old products. MEPs also urge the Commission to propose a strategy on the interoperability of different charging technologies, including wireless charging. This position still needs to be approved by the full Parliament at the May plenary... Read more

Council : Agreement on Digital Services Legislation (DSA)
The Parliament and the Council reached an agreement on digital services legislation (DSA) on 23 April. The text contains measures to make platforms more accountable, by allowing the Commission access to their algorithms and by strengthening controls on the content they distribute. It also strengthens user protection by offering them a right of redress and greater transparency on targeted advertising and how their data is processed. The agreement includes stricter obligations for very large platforms with up to 45 million monthly active users, notably on the fight against disinformation and the dissemination of harmful content... Read more
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Diplomacy : New aid for peace in Africa
The Council decided on 22 April to grant €600 million in assistance to the African Union over the period 2022-2024 under the European Peace Facility. The African Union will be able to request assistance from Member States for peace support operations according to national needs. The decision includes an additional €10 million to strengthen the joint multinational task force against the terrorist group Boko Haram. The Council announced a further €45 million in support for the armed forces of Mozambique to strengthen their capabilities and deployment... Read more
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Exchange on the strategic partnership with the US
The Secretary General of the European External Action Service, Stefano Sannino, met with US Deputy Secretary of State Wendy Sherman on 21-22 April to discuss the EU-US strategic partnership. They condemned Russia's actions and welcomed the joint commitment to fight the war in Ukraine. They expressed concern about Chinese information manipulation and economic coercion. They also discussed their cooperation in the Western Balkans, the Indo-Pacific region and the Sahel... Read more
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Court of Justice : Streaming of hearings
From 26 April, the delivery of the judgments of the Court of Justice and the reading of the opinions of the Advocates General will be broadcast live on the Court's website. For a pilot period of six months, the oral hearings before the Grand Chamber will be broadcast on a deferred basis... Read more

ECB : New World Map: Europe's resilience in a changing world
In a speech to the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington on 22 April, European Central Bank President Christine Lagarde stressed that changing value systems and shifting alliances are creating a new global map of economic relations and that European integration and its results can help the European Union adapt to this... Read more

European Agencies : Increase in illegal border crossings
Frontex has announced that illegal immigration to the European Union in the first quarter of 2022 saw the biggest increase since 2016, according to preliminary estimates from the European Border and Guard Agency (Frontex). The increase is 57% compared to the previous year, with more than 40 300 uncontrolled crossings. The busiest routes are the Western Balkans with over 18,300 reports, up 115%, and the Eastern Mediterranean with over 7,000 incidents, up 132%... Read more

UK : Boris Johnson's visit to India
British Prime Minister Boris Johnson visited India on 21-22 April to discuss trade and strategy with his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi. He reiterated his wish to conclude a trade agreement and discussed investment in industry, support for the green transition, partnerships for innovation and regional diplomacy... Read more
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Council of Europe : Recommendations to remedy prison overcrowding
The Council of Europe's Committee for the Prevention of Torture on 21 April called on its State members to set a limit on the number of inmates in each prison to tackle prison overcrowding. It considers that the use of non-custodial measures is modest in many states and encourages them to promote alternative measures to detention, such as community service or electronic monitoring systems... Read more
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IMF : Growth prospects revised downwards
The IMF revised its outlook for the world economy downwards on 19 April, due to the war in Ukraine, to 3.6% for 2022 and 2023. Inflation is expected to reach 5.7% in the advanced countries. For the eurozone, the IMF forecasts growth of 2.8% in 2022 and 2.3% in 2023, with inflation reaching 12.6%. The IMF calls for "multilateral initiatives to address the humanitarian crisis, prevent further fragmentation of the global economy, preserve global liquidity, deal with excessive debt, tackle climate change, and stop the pandemic"... Read more

Eurostat : Increase in annual inflation rates in March
Annual inflation was 7.8% in the European Union in March and 7.4% in the euro area, according to data released by Eurostat on 21 April. The lowest rates were recorded in Malta (4.5%) and France (5.1%), while Lithuania (15.6%) and Estonia (14.8%) registered the highest rates... Read more
Decrease in government deficit and government debt
The government deficit in the fourth quarter of 2021 was stable in the European Union at 3.5% of GDP and down in the euro area at 3.6%, compared with 3.8% in the third quarter, according to data published by Eurostat on 22 April. The decrease can be explained by a higher increase in total revenues compared to total deficits and a higher GDP. Public debt is down to 88.1% of GDP in the European Union and 95.6% of GDP in the euro area... Read more
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Increase in trade deficit
The European Union recorded a deficit of €15.8 billion in trade in goods with the rest of the world in February, compared with a surplus of €21.4 billion in February 2021, and the euro area a deficit of €7.6 billion in February, compared with a surplus of €23.6 billion in February 2021, according to an estimate published by Eurostat on 20 April. This development is largely due to energy prices... Read more

Studies/Reports : The European Union's Foreign Policy in 2021
The European External Action Service (EEAS) has compiled the speeches and articles of High Representative Josep Borrell in 2021 in a book, including his speech at the video conference organised by the Foundation in February 2021. This summary highlights the Union's action in 4 areas: the revival of relations with the United States in the context of the war in Ukraine and competition with China, the deepening of commitments with Africa and the Indo-Pacific region, the fight against common challenges such as climate change or pandemics, and common action in the framework of multilateralism... Read more
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Increase in world military spending
On 25 April, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) released its latest data on global military spending, which increased by 0.7% in real terms in 2021 to a total of $2,113 billion. This is the seventh year of record spending, but due to strong economic recovery in 2021, military spending as a percentage of GDP fell from 2.3% of GDP in 2020 to 2.2% in 2021. In Europe, 8 NATO member states have managed to spend 2% of GDP on the military. The report also notes that Russia increased its military spending by 2.9% in 2021, to $65.9 billion, as it prepared its invasion of Ukraine... Read more
Supply of metals for the energy transition
A study published on 25 April by KU Leuven University and the Eurometaux association highlights the European Union's growing need for raw materials generated by the energy transition, particularly lithium for batteries, nickel and rare earths... Read more
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Culture : Solidarity with Ukrainians in the world of culture
Cultural events in support of Ukraine continue across Europe. In France, the National Institute of Art History (INHA) is holding a cultural forum for Ukraine on 28 April, and students in Paris are honouring Ukrainian culture with posters. In Germany, on 27 April, the Berlin Philharmonic is hosting the Kyiv Symphony Orchestra; on 5 May, the People's Palace is hosting a reading of works by Ukrainian authors. In Spain, 14 Galician artists are giving a concert on 29 April at the Orense auditorium, and on 8 May, part of the proceeds from the Barcelona marathon will be donated to the Red Cross. The Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra is giving a concert "for the glory of Ukraine" on 30 April; on 9 May, the Teatr Druga Strefa in Warsaw is putting on a show documenting the war in Ukraine. In the UK, on 5 May a special performance of Swan Lake will take place at the Royal Opera in London... Read more
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Chagall in Warsaw
Until 24 July, the National Museum in Warsaw is presenting an exhibition on the work of Chagall. The fourteen paintings newly acquired by the museum correspond to the artistic peak of the master of surrealism, a period in which his brightly coloured works were produced in gouache, chalk, pencil, pastel and coloured ink... Read more
Picasso, the effervescence of shapes
Until 28 August, the Cité du Vin de Bordeaux is exploring the place of wine and alcohol in the work of Pablo Picasso, through paintings, drawings, ceramics and films. This exhibition gives a new perspective on the artist's work and celebrates his great creativity... Read more
Ellen Gallagher and Edgar Cleijne Exhibition in Santander
Until 11 September, the Centro Botín in Santander is showing an exhibition on the American artist Ellen Gallagher and her work together with the Dutch artist Edgar Cleijne. Their paintings, works on paper and film installations create a dialogue with the marine world. The exhibition highlights the evolutionary nature of life forms and the preservation of ocean organisms... Read more
Christian Dotremont in Brussels
From 28 April to 7 August, the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium are presenting the exhibition "Painter of Writing" on the artist Christian Dotremont. Organised on the occasion of the centenary of the birth of the Belgian poet and painter, the exhibition comprises 120 works on paper that will immerse the visitor in his striking graphic creation, between painting and writing... Read more
Gallery weekend in Berlin
Gallery Weekend Berlin is taking place from 29 April to 1 May. 50 art galleries across the German capital are offering exhibitions of international artists that attract collectors from Germany and abroad every year... Read more
Celtic Festival in Ireland
From 28 April to 2 May, the Dingle Peninsula in Ireland is hosting the Féile na Bealtaine Festival. This event, which has been running since 1994, was created to celebrate Celtic culture through the arts. For 5 days, you can enjoy musical parades, concerts, exhibitions, plays and dance performances... Read more
Balkan Trafik in Belgium
Du 28 avril au 1er mai, Bruxelles et Namur accueillent le festival Balkan Trafik. Pendant quatre jours, les musiques balkaniques sont mises à l'honneur à travers de nombreux concerts et les meilleurs musiciens de la région font le déplacement pour représenter leur culture. Cette année l'accent sera mis tout particulièrement sur la musique Gypsy issue de la communauté Rom... Read more
Jazz Festival in Cheltenham
From 27 April to 2 May, the town of Cheltenham is holding its jazz festival, which features internationally renowned musicians as well as the best emerging musicians in the music scene... Read more

25-28 April 2022


Session of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe

2-5 May 2022


Plenary session of the European Parliament

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année 2022
The Letter n°1002
How Can We Achieve Europe's Ambitions in terms of Research?
published on 05/12/2022
The Letter n°1001
Will the new generations of Europeans be up to the task of succession?
published on 28/11/2022
The Letter n°1000
Issue 1000
published on 21/11/2022
The Letter n°999
Energy: great hope for the 21st century
published on 14/11/2022
The Letter n°998
What is President Putin afraid of?
published on 07/11/2022
The Letter n°997
Greco-Turkish Relations at their lowest ebb
published on 31/10/2022
The Letter n°996
70 years on, it's time to reinvent the ECSC
published on 24/10/2022
The Letter n°995
Which direction for China?
published on 17/10/2022
The Letter n°994
The European Union's Declining Influence in the South
published on 10/10/2022
The Letter n°993
A change of era in Germany and its implications for European integration
published on 03/10/2022
The Letter n°992
Nationalism, sovereignism, virilism: the sources of the Russian war against Ukraine
published on 26/09/2022
The Letter n°991
The end of European dependence on Russian hydrocarbons
published on 19/09/2022
The Letter n°990
"In Russia today the whole media sphere has been destroyed"
published on 12/09/2022
The Letter n°989
"It is high time to light up Europe's stars again"
published on 18/07/2022
The Letter n°988
"The energy crisis shows the importance of European solidarity in response to asymmetric shocks".
published on 11/07/2022
The Letter n°987
The Black Sea, the spectre of a new Iron Curtain?
published on 04/07/2022
The Letter n°986
France at the head of the Council: positive results despite the war
published on 27/06/2022
The Letter n°985
Conference on the future of Europe: the complex implementation of great ambitions
published on 20/06/2022
The Letter n°984
Outlook for agriculture in the new European context
published on 13/06/2022
The Letter n°983
"Russia's war in Eastern Europe is a central threat to the international architecture"
published on 07/06/2022
The Letter n°982
Europe in a perfect storm
published on 30/05/2022
The Letter n°981
In support of a new approach to the Western Balkans
published on 23/05/2022
The Letter n°980
"Open Conflict between the West and Russia is not an Option"
published on 16/05/2022
The Letter n°979
Europe Day: 72 years of European Integration
published on 09/05/2022
The Letter n°978
The challenges in Protecting Maritime Areas of Common Interest, from the Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific
published on 02/05/2022
The Letter n°977
Strategic dependencies, a question of sovereignty
published on 25/04/2022
The Letter n°976
Reception of Ukrainian refugees. Between emergency responses and long-term solutions
published on 19/04/2022
The Letter n°975
From the Russia Pact to the Green Deal?
published on 11/04/2022
The Letter n°974
Global food crisis: Europe must choose between retreat and responsibility
published on 04/04/2022
The Letter n°973
European unilateralism as a tool for regulating international trade
published on 28/03/2022
The Letter n°972
Has Europe's Hour Come?
published on 21/03/2022
The Letter n°971
The Eastern Partnership under the test of war in Ukraine
published on 14/03/2022
The Letter n°970
"Russia's invasion of Ukraine is a moment of truth for Europe"
published on 07/03/2022
The Letter n°969
A few truths about Ukraine and Russia
published on 28/02/2022
The Letter n°968
Russia, Ukraine and international law
published on 21/02/2022
The Letter n°967
The European Strategy for a "New Deal" with Africa
published on 14/02/2022
The Letter n°966
"If only ageing Europe had chosen the easy option of more immigration"
published on 07/02/2022
The Letter n°965
"The European strategy in the Indo-Pacific is subtle and perfectly adapted"
published on 31/01/2022
The Letter n°964
European sovereignty, strategic autonomy, Europe as a power: what reality for the European Union, and for which future?
published on 24/01/2022
The Letter n°963
For a new European growth strategy
published on 17/01/2022
The Letter n°962
The Challenges of the French Presidency of the Council
published on 10/01/2022